Revised Report into Allegations of Organ Harvesting of
Falun Gong Practitioners in China
by David Matas and David Kilgour
31 January 2007
Table of Contents
A. INTRODUCTION - 1
B. THE ALLEGATION - 1
C. WORKING METHODS - 2
D. DIFFICULTIES OF PROOF - 3
E. METHODS OF PROOF - 5
F. ELEMENTS OF PROOF AND DISPROOF - 6
a) General Considerations - 6
1) Human rights violations - 6
2) Health financing - 8
3) Army financing - 9
4) Corruption - 11
b) Considerations specific to organ harvesting - 12
5) Technological development - 12
6) Treatment of prisoners sentenced to death - 13
7) Organ donations - 14
8) Waiting times - 15
9) Incriminating Information on Websites - 16
10) Donor recipient interviews - 20
11) The money to be made - 21
12) Chinese transplant ethics - 22
13) Foreign transplant ethics - 23
14) Chinese transplant laws - 24
15) Foreign transplant laws - 24
16) Travel Advisories - 25
17) Pharmaceuticals - 26
18) Foreign state funding for care - 27
C) Considerations specific to Falun Gong - 27
19) A perceived threat - 27
20) A policy of persecution - 30
21) Incitement to hatred - 31
22) Physical persecution - 32
23) Massive arrests - 34
24) Deaths - 35
25) Unidentified - 36
26) Blood testing and organ examination - 39
27) Sources of past transplants - 40
28) Sources of future transplants - 44
29) Corpses with missing organs - 46
30) Admissions - 48
31) A confession - 55
32) Corroborating studies - 56
33) Government of China responses - 57
G. FURTHER RESEARCH - 59
H. CONCLUSIONS - 60
I. RECOMMENDATIONS - 61
J. COMMENTARY - 64
K. APPENDICES (IN A SEPARATE DOCUMENT) - 66
1. Letter of Invitation from CIPFG - 66
2. Biography of David Matas - 66
3. Biography of David Kilgour - 66
4. Letter to the Embassy of China - 66
5. The Recipient Experience - 66
6. Ethics of Contact with China on Transplants - 66
7. Statements of the Government of China - 66
8. Edmonton Police Report of Willful Promotion of Hatred by Chinese
Consular Officials against Falun Gong -
9. Physical Persecution of Falun Gong - 66
10. Names of the Dead - 66
11. Witness Statements on the Unidentified - 66
12. Names of the Missing - 66
13. Blood Testing of Falun Gong Prisoners - 66
14. Transcript of Telephone Investigations - 66
15. Canada, Us and Japan Transplant Statistics in 10 Years - 66
16. Sujiatun - 66
17. Matas-Kilgour Response to the Chinese Government Statements - 66
18. A Confession - 66
19. AI's Records of Number of Executed Prisoners in China Each Year - 66
20. Corpses with Missing Organs - 66
The Coalition to Investigate the Persecution of the Falun Gong in China
asked us to investigate allegations of organ harvesting of Falun Gong
China. The coalition is a non-governmental organization registered in
D.C., U.S.A. with a branch in Ottawa, Canada. The request came formally
dated May 24, 2006 attached as an appendix to this report.
The request was to investigate allegations that state institutions and
employees of the
government of the People's Republic of China have been harvesting
organs from live
Falun Gong practitioners, killing the practitioners in the process. In
light of the
seriousness of the allegations as well as our own commitment to respect
rights, we accepted the request.
David Matas is an immigration, refugee and international human rights
private practice in Winnipeg. He is actively involved in the promotion
of respect for
rights as an author, speaker and participant in several human rights
David Kilgour is a former member of Parliament and a former Secretary
of State of the
Government of Canada for the Asia Pacific region. Before he became a
parliamentarian, he was a Crown prosecutor. The biographies of both
attached as appendices to this report.
B. The Allegation
It is alleged that Falun Gong practitioners are victims of live organ
throughout China. The allegation is that organ harvesting is inflicted
Falun Gong practitioners at a wide variety of locations, pursuant to a
policy, in large numbers.
Organ harvesting is a step in organ transplants. The purpose of organ
harvesting is to
provide organs for transplants. Transplants do not necessarily have to
take place in
the same place as the location of the organ harvesting. The two
locations are often
different; organs harvested in one place are shipped to another place
The allegation is further that the organs are harvested from the
they are still alive. The practitioners are killed in the course of the
operations or immediately thereafter. These operations are a form of
Finally, we are told that the practitioners killed in this way are then
is no corpse left to examine to identify as the source of an organ
C. Working Methods
We conducted our investigation independently from the Coalition to
Persecution of the Falun Gong in China, the Falun Dafa Association, any
organization, and any government. We sought to go to China
would be willing to go even subsequently to pursue the investigation.
When we began our work, we had no views whether the allegations were
untrue. The allegations were so shocking that they are almost
impossible to believe.
would have much rather found the allegations to be untrue than to be
allegations, if true, represent a disgusting form of evil which,
despite all the
depravities humanity has seen, are new to this planet. The very horror
made us reel
back in disbelief. But that disbelief does not mean that the
allegations are untrue.
We were well aware of the statement of U.S. Supreme Court Justice Felix
1943 to a Polish diplomat in reaction to being told by Jan Karski about
"I did not say that this young man was lying. I said that I was unable
what he told me. There is a difference."
After the Holocaust, it is impossible to rule out any form of
depravity. Whether an
alleged evil has been perpetrated can be determined only by considering
After the first version of our report was released, on July 7, 2006 in
travelled extensively, publicising the report and promoting its
the course of our travels, and as a result of the publicity surrounding
the first version,
we acquired substantial additional information. This second version
Nothing we subsequently discovered shook our conviction in our original
But much which we later discovered reinforced it. This version
presents, we believe,
an even more compelling case for our conclusions than the first version
D. Difficulties of proof
The allegations, by their very nature, are difficult either to prove or
best evidence for proving any allegation is eye witness evidence. Yet
for this alleged
crime, there is unlikely to be any eye witness evidence.
The people present at the scene of organ harvesting of Falun Gong
practitioners, if it
does occur, are either perpetrators or victims. There are no
bystanders. Because the
according to, the allegation are murdered and cremated, there is no
be found, no autopsy to be conducted. There are no surviving victims to
happened to them. Perpetrators are unlikely to confess to what would
be, if they
occurred, crimes against humanity. Nonetheless, though we did not get
confessions, we garnered a surprising number of admissions through
The scene of the crime, if the crime has occurred, leaves no traces.
Once an organ
harvesting is completed, the operating room in which it takes place
looks like any
other empty operating room.
The clampdown on human rights reporting in China makes assessment of the
allegations difficult. China, regrettably, represses human rights
defenders. There is no freedom of expression. Those reporting on human
violations from within China are often jailed and sometimes charged with
communicating state secrets. In this context, the silence of human
non-governmental organizations on organ harvesting of unwilling Falun
practitioners tells us nothing.
The International Committee of the Red Cross is not allowed to visit
China. Nor is any other organization concerned with human rights of
also cuts off a potential avenue of evidence.
China has no access to information legislation. It is impossible to get
Government of China basic information about organ transplants - how many
transplants there are, what is the source of the organs, how much is
transplants or where that money is spent.
We did seek to visit China for this report. Our efforts went nowhere.
We asked in
writing for a meeting with the embassy to discuss terms of entry. Our
attached as an appendix to this report. Our request for a meeting was
the person who met with David Kilgour was interested only in denying
and not in arranging for our visit.
E. Methods of proof
We have had to look at a number of factors, to determine whether they
picture, all together, which make the allegations either true or
untrue. None of these
elements on its own either establishes or disproves the allegations.
paint a picture.
Many of the pieces of evidence we considered, in themselves, do not
ironclad proof of the allegation. But their non-existence might well
disproof. The combination of these factors, particularly when there are
so many of
them, has the effect of making the allegations believable, even when
any one of them
in isolation might not do so. Where every possible element of disproof
identify fails to disprove the allegations, the likelihood of the
allegations being true
Proof can be either inductive or deductive. Criminal investigation
deductively, stringing together individual pieces of evidence into a
The limitations our investigation faced placed severe constraints in
method. Some elements from which we could deduce what was happening
nonetheless, available, in particular, the investigator phone calls.
We also used inductive reasoning, working backwards as well as
forwards. If the
allegations were not true, how would we know it was not true? If the
were true, what facts would be consistent with those allegations? What
the reality of the allegations, if the allegations were real? Answers
to those sorts of
questions helped us to form our conclusions.
We also considered prevention. What are the safeguards that would
prevent this sort
of activity from happening? If precautions are in place, we could
conclude that it is
less likely that the activity is happening. If they are not in place,
then the possibility
the activity is happening increases.
F. Elements of Proof and Disproof
a) General Considerations
1) Human rights violations
China violates human rights in a variety of ways. These violations are
serious. Besides Falun Gong, other prime targets of human rights
Tibetans, Christians, Uighurs, democracy activists and human rights
of Law mechanisms in place to prevent human rights violations, such as
independent judiciary, access to counsel on detention, habeas corpus,
the right to
public trial, are absent in China. China, according to its
constitution, is ruled by the
Communist Party. It is not ruled by law.
Communist China has had a history of massive, jaw dropping cruelty
towards its own
citizens. The Communist regime has killed more innocents than Nazi
Stalinist Russia combined1. Girl children are killed, abandoned and
massive numbers. Torture is widespread. The death penalty is both
arbitrary. China executes more people than all other countries
belief is suppressed2.
This pattern of human rights violations, like many other factors, does
not in itself
1 The Black Book of Communism, Harvard University Press (1999), Jung
and Jon Halliday Mao: The Unknown Story, Knopf, 2005.
2 See Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch annual reports for
prove the allegations. But it removes an element of disproof. It is
impossible to say
of these allegations that it is out of step with an overall pattern of
respect for human
rights in China. While the allegations, in themselves, are surprising,
they are less
surprising with a country that has the human rights record China does
would be for many other countries.
When there are so many violations of human rights in China, it is
invidious to point to
one victim. We nonetheless draw the attention to the victimization of
rights lawyer Gao Zhisheng as an example or a case study. It was Gao
who wrote to
us last summer, inviting us to come to China to investigate the
stealing of vital organs
from Falun Gong prisoners of conscience. No visa was subsequently
issued by its
embassy in Ottawa to do so; he was detained not long afterwards.
Gao wrote three open letters to President Hu and other leaders,
protesting a range of
abuses against the Falun Gong, including specific cases of torture and
also wrote about and condemned the extraction and sale of organs from
practitioners. He expressed his willingness to join the Coalition to
Harvesting from Still Alive People3.
He was convicted of inciting subversion and on December 2, 2006 given a
prison sentence. His removal to custody, however, was suspended for
five years; his
political rights were removed for a year by the Beijing court. This
someone whose only concern is respect for human rights in general and
persecution of Falun Gong practitioners in particular in itself
reinforces his concerns
The International Olympic Committee, in 2001, awarded Beijing the 2008
3 "The CCP Should Be Condemned for Criminalizing Gao Zhisheng for
The Epoch Times" The Epoch Times, December 24, 2006
Liu Jingmin, Vice President of the Beijing Olympic Bid, in April 2001,
said: "By allowing
Beijing to host the Games you will help the development of human
Yet, the result has been just the opposite. Amnesty International, in a
released September 21, 2006 said:
"In its latest assessment of the Chinese government's performance in
benchmark areas of human rights ahead of the Olympics, Amnesty
International found that its overall record remained poor. There has
progress in reforming the death penalty system, but in other crucial
the government's human rights record has deteriorated."
The international community, by carrying on with the Olympics in
Beijing despite the
deterioration of human rights in China in crucial areas, sends to China
a message of
impunity. The impression China must get is that it does not matter how
violates human rights; the international community seems not to care.
2) Health financing
When China moved from a socialist to a market economy, the health
system was part
of the shift. From 1980, China began withdrawing government funds from
sector, expecting the health system to make up the difference through
consumers of health services. Since 1980, government spending dropped
of all health care expenditure to 17%, while patients' out-of-pocket
up from 20% to 59%.4 A World Bank study reports that reductions in
coverage were worsened by increases in cost by the private sector5.
According to cardiovascular doctor Hu Weimin, the state funding for the
where he works is not enough to even cover staff salaries for one
month. He stated:
"The high price of illness in China", Louisa Lim, BBC News, Beijing,
2006/03/025 "Public Health in China: Organization, Financing and
Delivery of Services".
"Under the current system, hospitals have to chase profit to survive."
in China reports: "Rural hospitals [have had] to invent ways to make
generate sufficient revenue".6
The sale of organs became for hospitals a source of funding, a way to
doors open, and a means by which other health services could be
provided to the
One could see how this dire need for funds might lead first to a
harvesting organs from prisoners who would be executed anyways was
second to a desire not to question too closely whether the donors
wheeled in by
the authorities really were prisoners sentenced to death.
3) Army financing
The military, like the health system, has gone from public financing to
enterprise. The military in China is a conglomerate business. This
business is not
corruption, a deviation from state policy. It is state sanctioned, an
approved means of
raising money for military activities. In 1985, then President Deng
Xiaoping issued a
directive allowing the People's Liberation Army units to earn money to
make up the
shortfall in their declining budgets.
Many of the transplant centres and general hospitals in China are
financed by organ transplant recipients. Military hospitals operate
the Ministry of Health. The financing they earn from organ transplants
than pay the costs of these facilities. The money is used to finance
the overall military
July 27, 2005, Jeffrey P. Koplan
"Implementation of the International Covenant on Economic Social and
Cultural Rights in the People's Republic of China", April 14, 2005,
paragraph 69, page 24.
There is, for instance, the Organ Transplant Center of the Armed Police
Hospital in Beijing. This hospital boldly states:
"Our Organ Transplant Center is our main department for making money.
gross income in 2003 was 16,070,000 yuan. From January to June of 2004
income was 13,570,000 yuan. This year (2004) there is a chance to break
through 30,000,000 yuan."7
Military involvement in organ harvesting extends into civilian
often tell us that, even when they receive transplants in civilian
conducting the operation are military personnel.
Here is one example. When we were in Asia promoting our report, we met
in 2003 flew to Shanghai to obtain a new kidney for the RMB 20,000 price
negotiated before his departure. He was admitted to the No 1 Peoples'
civilian facility-and during the ensuing two weeks four kidneys were
testing against his blood and other factors. None proved compatible
because of his
anti-bodies; all were taken away.
He subsequently went to his home country, returning to the hospital
months later. Another four kidneys were similarly tested; when the
compatible, the transplant operation was successfully completed. His
eight days of
convalescence was done at No 85 hospital of the Peoples' Liberation
surgeon was Dr. Tan Jianming of the Nanjing military region, who wore
uniform at times in the civilian hospital.
This page was
available in early July, 2006 and has been removed afterwards. The
archived page is at
Tan carried sheets of paper containing lists of prospective "donors�,
based on various
tissue and blood characteristics, from which he would select names. The
observed at various times to leave the hospital in uniform and return
2-3 hours later
with containers bearing kidneys. Dr. Tan told the recipient that the
came from an executed prisoner.
The military have access to prisons and prisoners. Their operations are
secretive than those of the civilian government. They are impervious to
the rule of
Corruption is a major problem across China. State institutions are
sometimes run for
the benefit of those in charge of them rather than for the benefit of
Occasionally, China engages in "Strike Hard" against corruption.
But, in the absence of rule of law and democracy, where secrecy holds
public accounting of public funds is absent, these anti-corruption
campaigns seem to
be more power struggles than true anti-corruption drives. They are
placate public concern about corruption, politicized public relations
The sale of organs is a money driven problem. But that is different
from saying that it
is a corruption problem. The sale of organs from unwilling donors
with greed. A state policy of persecution is acted out in a financially
Former Chinese president Deng Xiaoping said: "To get rich is glorious".
He did not
say that some ways of getting rich are shameful.
Profiteering hospitals take advantage of a defenceless captive prison
their regions. The people are in prison without rights, at the
disposition of the
authorities. The incitement to hatred against prisoners and their
means that they can be butchered and killed without qualms by those who
this official hate propaganda.
b) Considerations specific to organ harvesting
5) Technological development
Albert Einstein wrote:
"The release of atom power has changed everything except our way of
thinking...the solution to this problem lies in the heart of mankind.
If only I had
known, I should have become a watchmaker."
Technological developments do not change human nature. But they do
ability to inflict harm.
The development of transplant surgery has done much to improve the
to cope with failing organs. But these developments in transplant
have not changed our way of thinking.
There is a tendency to think of any new medical development as a
humanity. That is certainly the intent of its developers. But medical
matter how far advanced, comes face to face with the same old capacity
for good and
More advanced techniques in transplant surgery do not mean a more
Chinese political system. The Chinese Communist system remains.
transplant surgery in China fail prey to the cruelty, the corruption,
which pervades China. Advances in transplant surgery provide new means
cadres to act out their venality and ideology.
We do not suggest that those who developed transplant surgery should
become watchmakers. We do suggest that we should not be so naive as to
just because transplant surgery was developed to do good, it can do no
On the contrary, the allegation made against the development of
transplant surgery in
China, that it is being used to harvest organs from unwilling Falun
would be just the acting out, in a new context, of the lesson Albert
teaching. We have seen before that modern technologies developed for
the benefit of
humanity have been perverted to inflict harm. We should not be
surprised if this has
also happened to transplant surgery.
6) Treatment of prisoners sentenced to death
Deputy Health Minister Huang Jiefu, speaking at a conference of
surgeons in the
southern city of Guangzhou in mid November 2006 acknowledged that
prisoners sentenced to death are a source of organ transplants. He
said: "Apart from
a small portion of traffic victims, most of the organs from cadavers
are from executed
prisoners." Asia News wrote:
business must be banned,' Mr Huang said cognizant
that too often organs come from non consenting parties and are sold for
high fees to foreigners."
China has the death penalty for a large number of offences including
and economic crimes where there is no suggestion that the accused has
violent act. To go from executing no one to killing Falun Gong
practitioners for their
organs without their consent is a large step. To go from executing
sentenced to death for political or economic crimes and harvesting
without their consent to killing Falun Gong practitioners for their
organs without their
consent is a good deal smaller step.
It would be difficult to believe that a state which killed no one,
which had no death
penalty, which harvested the organs of no one else without their
harvest the organs of Falun Gong practitioners without their consent.
It is a good
deal easier to believe that a state which executes prisoners sentenced
to death for
economic or political crimes and harvests their organs without their
also kill Falun Gong practitioners for their organs without their
The Falun Gong constitutes a prison population who the Chinese
dehumanize, depersonalize, marginalize even more than executed
to death for criminal offences. Indeed, if one considers only the
directed against the two populations, it would seem that the Falun Gong
would be a
target for organ harvesting even before prisoners sentenced to death.
7) Organ donations
China has no organized system of organ donations.89 In this it is
unlike every other
country engaged in organ transplant surgery. Donations from living
allowed for family members.
We are told that there is a Chinese cultural aversion to organ
donation. Yet, Hong
and Taiwan, with essentially the same culture, have active organ
The absence of an organ donation system in China tells us two things.
One is that
organ donations are not a plausible source for organ transplants in
(2006-05-05, China Daily) English
Life weekly, 2006-04-07
Because of the culture aversion to organ donation in China, even an
donation system would have difficult supplying the volume of
occurring in China. But the problem is compounded when there is not
even an active
effort to encourage donations.
Donations matter in other countries because donations are the primary
organs for transplants. We can conclude that from the absence of a
serious effort to
encourage donations in China that, for China, donations do not even
such a plethora of organs available for transplants without donations
encouraging organ donations becomes superfluous.
The absence of a serious effort to encourage organ donations in
short waiting times for transplant surgery in China and the large
volume of transplants
tells us that China is awash in living organs for transplant; people
the authorities have
ready on hand to be killed for their organs for transplants. That
reality does nothing
to dispel the allegation of organ harvesting of unwilling Falun Gong
8) Waiting times
Hospital web sites in China advertise short waiting times for organ
Transplants of long dead donors are not viable because of organ
death. If we take these hospital's self-promotions at face value, they
tell us that there
are a large number of people now alive who are available on demand as
The wait times for organ transplants for organ recipients in China are
much lower than
anywhere else. The China International Transplantation Assistant Centre
"It may take only one week to find out the suitable (kidney) donor, the
being one month...�10. It goes further, "If something wrong with the
happens, the patient will have the option to be offered another organ
donor and have
the operation again in one week." 11 The site of the Oriental Organ
in early April, 2006, claimed that "the average waiting time (for a
suitable liver) is 2
weeks." 12 The website of the Changzheng Hospital in Shanghai says:
waiting time for a liver supply is one week among all the patients". 13
In contrast, the median waiting time in Canada for a kidney was 32.5
months in 2003
and in British Columbia it was even longer at 52.5 months.14 The
survival period for a
is between 24-48 hours and a liver about 12 hours.15 The presence of a
bank of living kidney-liver "donors" must be the only way China's
can assure such short waits to customers. The astonishingly short
advertised for perfectly-matched organs would suggest the existence of
a large bank
of live prospective 'donors'.
9) Incriminating Information on Websites
Some of the material available on the websites of various transplant
centres in China
before March 9, 2006 (when allegations about large-scale organ seizures
12 The front page has been altered. The archived page is at:
Archived at :
14 Canadian Organ Replacement Register, Canadian Institute for Health
15 Donor Matching System, The Organ Procurement and Transplantation
Canadian and other world media) is also inculpatory. Understandably, a
good deal of it
has since been removed. So these comments will refer only to sites that
can still be
found at archived locations, with the site locations being identified
either in the
comments or as footnotes. A surprising amount of self-accusatory
material was still
available as of the final week of June, 2006 to web browsers. We list
here only four
(1) China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre
This website as of May 17, 2006 indicated in the English version (the
evidently disappeared after March 9) that the centre was established in
2003 at the
Affiliated Hospital of China Medical University "...specifically for
Most of the patients are from all over the world." The opening sentence
of the site
16 introduction declares that "Viscera (one dictionary definition:
organs...including the brain, lungs, heart etc") providers can be found
On another page17 on the same site is this statement: "...the number of
transplant operations is at least 5,000 every year all over the
country. So many
transplantation operations are owing to the support of the Chinese
supreme demotic court, supreme demotic law - officer, police,
judiciary, department of
health and civil administration have enacted a law together to make
sure that organ
donations are supported by the government. This is unique in the world."
16 The original page has been altered. Older versions can still be
found at Internet Archive:
or use archived version at:
In the 'question and answer' section of the site are found:
"Before the living kidney transplantation, we will ensure the donor's
it is more safe than in other countries, where the organ is not from a
living donor." 18
. "Q: Are the organs for the pancreas transplant(ed) from brain death
"A: Our organs do not come from brain death victims because the state
organ may not be good." 19
(2)Orient Organ Transplant Centre Website
On a page we were informed was removed in mid-April (but can still be
located as an
archive 12) is the claim that from "January 2005 to now, we have done
transplants - 12 of them done this week; the average waiting time is 2
chart also removed about the same time (but archive still available20)
from virtually a standing start in 1998 (when it managed only 9 liver
2005 it had completed fully 224821 .
or use archived version:
or use archived version:
20 The front page has been altered. Archived at:
21 The front page has been altered. Archived at:
In contrast, according to the Canadian Organ Replacement Register 14,
the total in
Canada for all kinds of organ transplants in 2004 was 1773.
(3) Jiaotong University Hospital Liver Transplant Centre Website
(Shanghai - This is #5 in the list of telephoned centres)
In a posting on April 26, 2006, 22
the website says in part:
"The liver transplant cases (here) are seven in 2001, 53 cases in 2002,
105 cases in
144 cases in 2004, 147 cases in 2005 and 17 cases in January, 2006," .
(4) Website of Changzheng Hospital Organ Transplant Centre, affiliated
with No. 2
Military Medical University
A page was removed after March 9, 2006. (Internet Archive page is
contains the following graph depicting the number of liver transplant
each year by this
23 The URL of the removed page as of March 2005 in the Internet Archive
In the "Liver Transplant Application" form 24, it states on the top,
"...Currently, for the
liver transplant, the operation fee and the hospitalization expense
together is about
200,000 yuan ($66,667 CND), and the average waiting time for a liver
supply is one
week among all the patients in our hospital...."
10) Donor recipient interviews
For the first version of our report, we did not have time to engage in
interviews, people who went to China from abroad for transplants. For
engaged in extensive interviews of a number of these recipients and
members. Summaries of their experience are attached as an appendix to
Organ transplant surgery, as described by the recipients and their
conducted in almost total secrecy, as if it were a crime which needed
cover up. As
much information as possible is withheld from the recipients and their
are not told the identity of the donors. They are never shown written
the donors or their families. The identity of the operating doctor and
support staff are
, Archived at :
often not disclosed, despite requests for this information. Recipients
and their families
are commonly told the time of the operation only shortly before it
sometimes occur in the middle of the night. The whole procedure is done
on a "don't
ask, don't tell" basis.
When people act as if they have something to hide, it is reasonable to
they have something to hide. Since organ sourcing from prisoners
sentenced to death
is widely known and even acknowledged by the Government of China,
transplant hospitals can not be trying to hide that. It must be
something else. What
11) The money to be made
In China, organ transplanting is a very profitable business. We can
trace the money
of the people who pay for organ transplants to specific hospitals which
but we can not go further than that. We do not know who gets the
money the hospitals receive. Are doctors and nurses engaged in criminal
harvesting paid exorbitant sums for their crimes? That was a question
impossible for us to answer, since we had no way of knowing where the
China International Transplantation Network Assistance Centre Website
Before its indicated removal from the site 25 in April, 2006, the size
of the profits for
transplants was suggested in the following price list:
25 Yet, one can still go to the Internet Archive to find the
information on this website from March 2006:
A standard way of investigating any crime allegation where money
changes hands is
to follow the money trail. But for China, its closed doors mean that
money trail is impossible. Not knowing where the money goes proves
nothing. But it
also disproves nothing, including these allegations.
12) Chinese transplant ethics
Chinese transplant professionals are not subject to any ethical
strictures separate from
the laws which govern their work. Many other countries have self
transplant professions with their own disciplinary systems. Transplant
violate ethical guidelines can be ejected from their profession by
without any state intervention.
For transplant professionals in China, we found nothing of the sort.
When it comes to
transplant surgery, as long as the state does not intervene, anything
goes. There is
no independent supervisory body exercising disciplinary control over
professionals independent of the state.
The Wild West system of transplant surgery in China makes it easier for
practices to occur. State involvement and criminal prosecution are
systematic than professional discipline. Because the penalties for
prosecution are greater than the penalties for professional discipline
- potential jail
time rather than just barring someone from the profession - prosecution
more rare than discipline cases.
The absence of a functioning transplant professional discipline system
does not mean
that abuses are occurring. But it certainly makes it more likely that
they will occur.
13) Foreign transplant ethics
There are huge gaps in foreign transplant ethics. In many of the
which transplant tourism to China originates, transplant professionals
ethical and disciplinary systems. But it is rare for these systems to
with either transplant tourism or contact with Chinese transplant
transplants from executed prisoners. The watch words here seem to be
"out of sight,
out of mind".
On transplant tourism, the Professional Code of Conduct of the Medical
Hong Kong has two principles, in particular, worth emphasizing. One is
that, "if there
is doubt" as to whether the consent is given freely or voluntarily by
the donor, the
profession should have nothing to do with the donation. And, the very
least one can
say about China, in light of the fact that "almost all" transplants
come from prisoners,
that there is doubt in almost every case whether the consent is given
voluntarily by the donor.
The second is that the onus is on the foreign professionals to
ascertain the status of
the Chinese donor. The foreign professional is not acting ethically as
long as he or
she makes no inquiries or only cursory ones. The foreign professional,
investigation, has to be satisfied beyond any doubt before referring a
patient to China
that consent was given freely or voluntarily by the donor.
The organ harvesting market in China, in order to thrive, requires both
a supply and a
demand. The supply comes from China, from prisoners. But the demand, in
part, in big bucks, comes from abroad.
In an appendix, we present a critical analysis of the ethics of contact
with China on
transplants. The Hong Kong principles are the exception rather than the
professional ethics do little or nothing to staunch the foreign demand
for organs from
14) Chinese transplant laws
Until July 1st, 2006, the practice of selling organs in China was
legal. A law banning
their sale came into effect on that date.
In China there is a huge gap between enacting legislation and enforcing
it. To take
one example, the preamble of the Constitution of China promises for
China a "high
level" of democracy. But, as the Tiananmen square massacre
demonstrated, China is
Indeed from what we can tell, the law on organ transplants is not now
enforced. Belgian senator Patrik Vankrunkelsven, in late November 2006,
different hospitals in Beijing pretending to be a customer for a kidney
Both hospitals offered him a kidney on the spot for 50,000 euros.
As noted earlier, Deputy Health Minister Huang Jiefu in November 2006
selling of organs from executed prisoners sentenced to death saying
must be banned". Yet, it was already banned, on July 1. His speech must
be taken as an official acknowledgment that the ban is not working.
15) Foreign transplant laws
The sort of transplants in which the Chinese medical system engages is
everywhere else in the world. But it is not illegal for a foreigner in
any country to go
to China, benefit from a transplant which would be illegal back home,
and then return
home. Foreign transplant legislation everywhere is territorial. It does
Many other laws are global in their sweep. For instance, child sex
tourists can be
prosecuted not just in the country where they have sex with children,
but, in many
countries, back home as well. This sort of legislation does not exist
tourists who pay for organ transplants without bothering to determine
organ donor has consented.
There have been some legislative initiatives. For instance, Belgian
Vankrunkelsven is proposing an extraterritorial criminal law which
transplant tourists who purchase organs abroad where the donors are
missing persons. But these legislative proposals are still in an early
16) Travel Advisories
Many states have travel advisories, warning their citizens of the
perils in travel to one
country to another. The advisories often warn of political violence, or
related problems. But no government has posted a travel advisory about
transplants in China, warning its citizens that, in the words of The
Society, "almost all" organs in China come from prisoners.
Some, and we would hope, many would-be recipients of organ transplants
hesitate to go to China for transplants if they knew that their organs
from people who were non-consenting prisoners. But right now there is
to would be recipients of the source of organs in China, either through
governments or the medical profession
For instance, the Canadian travel advisory for China, posted on the
web site gives extensive information, almost 2,600 words, and has a
health. But organ transplants are not mentioned.
Organ transplantation surgery relies on anti-rejection drugs. China
drugs from the major pharmaceutical companies.
Transplant surgery used to require both tissue and blood type matching
transplant to succeed. The development of transplant anti-rejection
allowed for transplant surgery to circumvent tissue matching. It is
heavy use of anti-rejection drugs, to transplant from a donor to a
tissues do not match. Only blood type matching is essential. Tissue
preferable, to avoid heavy reliance on anti-rejection drugs, but no
The Chinese medical system relies heavily on anti-rejection drugs.
International pharmaceutical companies behave towards the Chinese
system the same way everyone else does. They ask no questions. They
knowledge whether their drugs are being used in recipients who received
involuntary donor prisoners or not.
Many countries have export control acts, forbidding the export of some
altogether and requiring state permission for the export of other
products. But no
state, to our knowledge, prohibits export to China of anti-rejection
drugs used for
organ transplant patients.
For instance, the Canadian Export and Import Permits Act provides:
"No person shall export or attempt to export any goods included in an
Control List or any goods to any country included in an Area Control
the authority of and in accordance with an export permit issued under
But anti-rejection drugs for transplants are not included in the Area
Control list for
18) Foreign state funding for care
Some state administered health plans pay for health care abroad in the
would be paid if the care were administered in the home country. Where
happens, there is not, to our knowledge, in any country a prohibition
where the patient obtains an organ transplant in China.
Transplant tourists need aftercare in their home country. They continue
prescription and administration of anti-rejection drugs. States which
government funding for health services typically provide funding for
this sort of after
Again here, to the funders how the organ recipient got the organ is a
indifference. The fact that the organ may have came from an
in China who was killed for the organ is simply not relevant to foreign
state funding of
aftercare for the recipient.
C) Considerations specific to Falun Gong
19) A perceived threat
The overwhelming majority of prisoners of conscience in Chinese prisons
Gong. An estimated two thirds of the torture victims in Chinese prisons
Gong. The extremes of language the Chinese regime uses against the
Falun Gong are
unparalleled, unmatched by the comparatively mild criticisms China has
of the victims
26 Section 13.
the West is used to defending. The documented yearly arbitrary killings
disappearances of Falun Gong exceed by far the totals for any other
Why does the Chinese government denounce so viciously and repress so
one group, more so than any other victim group? The standard Chinese
the Falun Gong is that it is an evil cult.
Falun Gong has none of the characteristics of a cult. It is not an
organization. It has
no memberships, no offices and no officers. Falun Gong has no funds and
David Ownby, Director of the Centre of East Asian studies at the
Montreal and a specialist in modern Chinese history, wrote about the
Falun Gong in a
paper prepared six years ago for the Canadian Institute of
International Affairs. He
stated that unlike cults, Falun Gong has no mandatory financial
of practitioners in communes or withdrawal from the world. He says:
"Falun Gong members remain within society. In a vast majority, they
nuclear families. They go to work; they send their kids to school." 27
There is no penalty for leaving the Falun Gong, since there is nothing
Practitioners are free to practice Falun Gong as little or as much as
they see fit. They
can start and stop at any time. They can engage in their exercises in
Li Hongzhi, the author of the books which inspired Falun Gong
practitioners, is not
worshipped by practitioners. Nor does he receive funds from
practitioners. He is a
private person who meets rarely with practitioners. His advice to
27 �Falun Gong and Canada�s China policy�. David Ownby, vol. 56,
International Journal, Canadian Institute of
International Affairs, Spring 2001.
publicly available information - conference lectures and published
The Chinese government labelling of the Falun Gong as an evil cult is a
the repression of the Falun Gong, a pretext for that repression as well
defamation, incitement to hatred, depersonalization, marginalization and
dehumanization of the Falun Gong. But this labelling does not explain
repression arose. The "evil cult" label is a manufactured tool of
repression, but not its
The cause lies elsewhere.
In order to enforce conformity, Chinese exercise regimes or qigong in
variations were suppressed in 1949 after the Chinese Communist Party
By the 1990s, the police state environment had become less oppressive
for all forms
of qigong, including Falun Gong.
Falun Gong includes elements of Confucianism, Buddhism and Taoism. In
teaches methods of meditation through exercises intended to improve
spiritual health and fitness. The movement has no political platform;
its followers seek
to promote truth, tolerance and forbearance across racial, national and
boundaries. Violence is anathema.
Li registered his movement with the government's Qigong Research
Association. At a
time when the movement was falling into official disfavour but before
it was banned,
in early 1998, Li moved to the United States. But Falun Gong continued
The Jiang government estimated in 1999 that there were 70 million
year, the Communist Party of China membership was an estimated 60
Before Falun Gong was banned in July, 1999, its adherents gathered
throughout China to do their exercises. In Beijing alone there were
more than 2000
The Communist Party, in April 1999, published an article in the
magazine Science and
Technology for Youth, which singled out Falun Gong as a superstition
and a health
risk because practitioners might refuse conventional medical treatments
illnesses. A large number of Falun Gong adherents demonstrated against
of the piece outside the Tianjin editor's office. Arrests and police
To petition the Government Petition Office in Beijing about these
arrests, on April
25th, 1999, 10,000-15,000 Falun Gong practitioners gathered from dawn
until late at
outside the Communist Party headquarters at Zhongnanhai next to
Forbidden City. The gathering was silent, without posters28. Jiang was
the presence of these petitioners. The ideological supremacy of the
was, in his view, in danger.
20) A policy of persecution
If organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners were widespread
across China, one
would expect some governmental policy directive to that effect. Yet,
the secrecy of
policy formulation in China prevents us from determining whether such a
Nonetheless, we do know that persecution of Falun Gong exists as an
There are some very strong policy statements, attached as an appendix
to this report,
by the Government of China and the Communist Party of China, calling
persecution of the Falun Gong, including physical persecution.
The Government of China set up a dedicated bureaucracy assigned with
the task of
repressing the Falun Gong. This dedicated bureaucracy has
throughout China. Because it was established on the tenth day of the
six month of
1999, it is called, in shorthand, the 610 office. The 610 office has
28 Danny Schechter, Falun Gong's Challenge to China, Akashic Books,
pages 44 to 46.
every province, city, county, university, government department and
owned business in China.
According to Li Baigen, then assistant director of the Beijing
Municipal Planning office
who attended the meeting, during 1999 the three men heading the 610
more than 3,000 officials to the Great Hall of the People in the
capital to discuss the
campaign against Falun Gong, which was then not going well.
continuing to occur at Tiananmen Square. The head of the 610 office, Li
verbally announced the government's new policy on the movement:
bankrupting them financially and destroying them physically." Only after
this meeting were the deaths of adherents at police hands recorded as
21) Incitement to hatred
The Falun Gong in China are dehumanized both in word and deed. Policy
are matched by incitement to the population at large both to justify
the policy of
persecution, to recruit participants, and to forestall opposition. This
sort of vocabulary
directed against a particular group has become both the precursor and
the hallmark of
gross human violations directed against the group.
According to Amnesty International, the Chinese Government adopted
to crush Falun Gong: violence against practitioners who refuse to
beliefs; "brainwashing" to force all known practitioners to abandon
Falun Gong and
renounce it, and a media campaign to turn public opinion against Falun
Local governments were authorized to implement Beijing's orders to
repress the Falun
Gong. Implementation meant, in part, staged attempts to demonstrate to
population that practitioners committed suicide by self-immolation,
mutilated family members and refused medical treatment. Over time this
had the desired effect and many, if not most, Chinese nationals came to
Communist Party view about Falun Gong. The National People's Congress
passed laws purporting to legalize a long list of illegal acts done by
practitioners against other practitioners.
This incitement to hatred is most acute in China. But it exists
officials, wherever they are posted, engage in this incitement as part
and parcel of
official duties. In Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, this behaviour became the
subject of a police recommendation for prosecution of two Chinese
consular officials in
Calgary for wilful promotion of hatred against the Falun Gong. The
police report is
attached as an exhibit to this report30.
Incitement to hatred is not specific enough to indicate the form that
takes. But it promotes any and all violations of the worst sort. It is
hard to imagine
the allegations we have heard being true in the absence of this sort of
propaganda. Once this sort of incitement exists, the fact that people
would engage in
such behaviour against the Falun Gong - harvesting their organs and
killing them in
the process - ceases to be implausible.
22) Physical persecution
Former president Jiang's mandate to the 610 office 31was to "eradicate"
Falun Gong 32.
An appendix gives extensive detail about this attempt at eradication
30Despite the police recommendation, the Attorney General decided not to
31 Appendix 6, (June 7, 1999) �Comrade Jiang Zemin�s speech at the
meeting of the Political Bureau of CCCCP
regarding speeding up the dealing with and settling the problem of
32 H. CON. RES. 188, CONCURRENT RESOLUTION, U.S http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/z?c107:hc188:
The UN Special Rapporteur on Torture's recent report 33 noted that
"Since 2000, the Special Rapporteur and his predecessors have reported
cases of alleged torture to the Government of China. These cases
well over 1,160 individuals." And "In addition to this figure, it is to
that one case sent in 2003 (E/CN.4/2003/68/Add.1 para. 301) detailed the
alleged ill treatment and torture of thousands of Falun Gong
Furthermore, the report indicated that 66% of the victims of alleged
ill-treatment in China were Falun Gong practitioners, with the
comprising Uighurs (11%), sex workers (8%), Tibetans (6%), human rights
(5%), political dissidents (2%), and others (persons infected with
members of religious groups 2%).
Part of a wire story from the Beijing bureau of the Washington Post
fully two summers
later (5 Aug 2001) 34 illustrates the severity of the ongoing methods
of the 610 office
and other agents of the regime against Falun Gong practitioners:
"At a police station in western Beijing, Ouyang was stripped and
for five hours. 'If I responded incorrectly, that is if I didn't say,
shocked me with the electric truncheon,' he said. Then, he was
transferred to a
labour camp in Beijing's western suburbs. There, the guards ordered him
stand facing a wall. If he moved, they shocked him. If he fell down from
fatigue, they shocked him..."
"(Later) he was taken before a group of Falun Gong inmates and rejected
group one more time as the video cameras rolled. Ouyang left jail and
33 U.N. Commission on Human Rights: Report of the Special Rapporteur on
torture and other cruel, inhuman or
degrading treatment or punishment, Manfred Nowak, on his Mission to
China from November 20 to December 2,
2005 (E/CN.4/2006/6/Add.6), March 10, 2006. (http://www.ohchr.org/english/bodies/chr/docs/62chr/ecn4-20066-Add6.doc
the brainwashing classes. Twenty days after debating Falun Gong for 16
a day, he 'graduated'. 'The pressure on me was and is incredible,' he
the past two years, I have seen the worst of what man can do. We really
worst animals on Earth.'"
Ownby noted that human rights organizations
"have unanimously condemned China's brutal campaign against the
and many governments around the world, including Canada's, have
He cited Amnesty International's report of 2000 which noted that 77
practitioners had "died in custody, or shortly after release, in
since the crackdown began in July 1999."
23) Massive arrests
Massive arrests of practitioners are a form of physical persecution
separate attention because of its potential link to organ harvesting.
Any person organ
harvested against his or her will has to be detained first.
Repression of Falun Gong included sending thousands upon thousands of
practitioners to prisons and labour camps beginning in the summer of
1999. The US
State Department's 2005 country report on China 35, for example,
indicates that its
police run hundreds of detention centres, with the 340
ones alone having a holding capacity of about 300,000 persons. The
indicates that the number of Falun Gong practitioners who died in
estimated to be from a few hundred to a few thousand.
34 Washington Post Foreign Service, �Torture Is Breaking Falun Gong:
China Systematically Eradicating Group,�
John Pomfret and Philip P. Pan, August 5, 2001. (http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp
35 U.S. Department of State 2005 Country Reports on Human Rights
Practices � China, March 8, 2006.
Hundreds of thousands of Falun Gong practitioners travelled to Beijing
to protest or to
unfold banners calling for the group's legalization. People came almost
Jennifer Zeng, formerly of Beijing and now living in Australia, informs
us that by the
end of April 2001 there had been approximately 830,000 arrests in
Beijing of Falun
Gong adherents who had been identified. There are no statistics
practitioners who were arrested but refused to self identify. From our
released Falun Gong practitioners we know that the number of those who
did not self
identify is large. But we do not know how large.
Large numbers of Falun Gong adherents in arbitrary indefinite secret
do not prove the allegations. But the opposite, the absence of such a
detainees, would undermine the allegations. An extremely large group of
subject to the exercise of the whims and power of the state, without
recourse to any
form of protection of their rights, provides a potential source for
organ harvesting of
As of December 22, 2006, we have identified 3006 Falun Gong
practitioners who died
as a result of persecution. These identified victims can be gathered
into six groups.
One group is the victims who died from stress related causes
precipitated by constant
harassment and threats from the authorities. A second is those
detention and then released alive to their families, but who died
subsequently of their
mistreatment. The third group is the victims who died in detention of
whose bodies were released by the authorities to the family for
cremation. The fourth
is the victims who died in detention of mistreatment and were cremated
detained, but whose families got to see the bodies in between death and
fifth is the victims who died and were cremated in detention without
ever seeing the bodies. The sixth is the victims who died in detention
but we do not
have enough information to determine whether the families saw the
The bulk of the possible Falun Gong victims of organ harvesting are,
from what we
can tell, those whose families were not notified of the deaths of their
loved ones. This
failure to notify had two causes. One was that the practitioners
refused to identify
themselves to the authorities. The other was that the authorities,
though they knew
who the practitioners were, refused to notify the families of their
detention; as well,
these practitioners were not, before death, allowed to contact their
However, we can not exclude the possibility that the fifth and sixth
group of the
identified dead were also victims of organ harvesting. This group
numbers about 300.
The fifth group in particular raise suspicions. Their names are listed
in an appendix.
The large number of Falun Gong practitioners killed by the authorities
supports the allegation we are investigating. When the life of Falun
practitioners is cheap, there is no particular reason to rule out one
cause of death. If
the Government of China is willing to kill large number of Falun Gong
through torture, it is not that hard to believe they would be willing
to do the same
through organ harvesting.
Falun Gong detentions, though in some ways they are just Chinese
usual with the Falun Gong being the unlucky targets, present an unusual
Falun Gong practitioners who came from all over the country to
Tiananmen Square in
Beijing to appeal or protest were systematically arrested. Those who
identities to their captors would be shipped back to their home
localities. Their families
be implicated in their Falun Gong activities and pressured to join in
the effort to
the practitioners to renounce Falun Gong. Their workplace leaders,
their coworkers, their local government leaders would be held
responsible and penalized for
the fact that these individuals had gone to Beijing to appeal or
To protect their families and avoid the hostility of the people in
their locality, many
detained Falun Gong declined to identify themselves. The result was a
Gong prison population whose identities the authorities did not know.
As well, no one
who knew them knew where they were.
Though this refusal to identify themselves was done for protection
purposes, it may
have had the opposite effect. It is easier to victimize a person whose
unknown to family members than a person whose location the family
population is a remarkably undefended group of people, even by Chinese
Those who refused to self identify were treated especially badly. As
well, they were
moved around within the Chinese prison system for reasons not explained
Was this a population which became a source of harvested Falun Gong
Obviously, the mere existence of this population does not tell us that
this is so. Yet,
the existence of this population provides a ready explanation for the
harvested organs, if the allegations are true. Members of this
population could just
disappear without anyone outside of the prison system being the wiser.
For the authors, the investigations which led to this report had many
moments. One of the most disturbing was the discovery of this massive
prison/detention/labour camp population of the unidentified.
practitioner who eventually was released from detention told us about
A collection of some of their statements is attached as an exhibit.
What these practitioners told us was that they personally met the
detention, in significant numbers. Though we have met many Falun Gong
practitioners who were released from Chinese detention, we have yet to
meet or hear
of, despite their large numbers, a practitioner released from detention
who refused to
self identify in detention from the beginning to the end of the
detention period. What
happened to these many practitioners? Where are they?
The problem of enforced disappearances is distinguishable from the
problem of the
unidentified, because, in the case of enforced disappearances, families
know that the
state is involved. For the unidentified, all the families know is that
they have lost
track of a loved one. For those victims of enforced disappearances, the
witnesses know more. They know that the person was at one time in the
the state. The state either refuses to acknowledge that the person was
ever in their
custody or conceals the fate or whereabouts of the person36.
There are some Falun Gong practitioners who have disappeared, abducted
authorities. However, the only disappearances case of which we know are
who were subsequently released and then spoke of their abduction. We
these victims were made to disappear only after the fact, once they
reappeared. It is
likely that there are other such practitioners who were never released.
For the unidentified, because family members know only that they have
with a loved one, they do not necessarily turn to the state to ask if
the person has
been detained. When the person who is missing is the adherent to a
practise which is
brutally repressed by the state, the tendency of the family to avoid
the government is
heightened. Nonetheless a few have sought out Chinese government help
to find a
missing Falun Gong practitioner family member. Some of those cases are
listed in an
to this report.
36 International Convention for the Protection of All Persons from
Disappearance, Article 2.
26) Blood testing and organ examination
Falun Gong practitioners in detention are systematically blood tested
examined. Other prisoners, who are not practitioners, sitting side by
practitioners are not tested. This differential testing occurs in
labour camps, prisons
and detention centres. We have heard such a large number of
testimonials to this
effect that this differential testing exists beyond a shadow of a
doubt. These tests
and examination happen whether practitioners are held at labour camps,
detention centres. Interview statements testifying to systematic blood
organ examination of Falun Gong practitioners to the exclusion of other
attached as an appendix to this report.
The practitioners themselves are not told the reason for the testing
It is unlikely that the testing and examination serves a health
purpose. For one, it is
unnecessary to blood test and organ examine people systematically
simply as a health
precaution. For another, the health of the Falun Gong in detention is
so many other ways, it is implausible that the authorities would blood
test and organ
examine Falun Gong as a precautionary health measure.
Blood testing is a pre-requisite for organ transplants. Donors need to
with recipients so that the antibodies of the recipients do not reject
the organs of the
The mere fact of blood testing and organ examination does not establish
harvesting of Falun Gong practitioners is taking place. But the
opposite is true. If
there were no blood testing, the allegation would be disproved. The
blood testing of Falun Gong practitioners in detention cuts off this
avenue of disproof.
27) Sources of past transplants
The numbers of organ transplants in China is huge, up to 20,000 in 2005
China Daily. China has the second largest number of operations done in
just after USA.
The large volumes coupled with the short waiting times means that there
has to be a
large number of potential donors on hand at any one time. Where is and
who is this
large donor population?
There are many more transplants than identifiable sources. We know that
organs come from prisoners sentenced to death and then executed. Very
from willing donor family members and the brain dead. But these sources
gaps in the totals. The number of prisoners sentenced to death and then
and willing sources come nowhere close to the number of transplants.
The number of prisoners sentenced to death and then executed is itself
We are operating only from numbers provided by Amnesty International
Chinese public records. Those numbers, when one considers global
are large, but nowhere near the estimated totals of transplants.
At least 98% of the organs for transplants come from someone other than
donors.9 In the case of kidneys, for example, only 227 of 40,393
transplants - about
0.6% - done between 1971 and 2001 in China came from family donors. 37
The government of China admitted to using the organs of prisoners
China Pharmacy Net, 2002-12-05
death and then executed only in 2005 38 39, although it had been going
on for many
years. The regime has had no barriers to prevent marketing the organs
of "enemies of
According to tabulations constructed from the Amnesty International
reports 40 of
publicly available information in China, the average number of
prisoners sentenced to
death and then executed between 1995 and 1999 was 1680 per year. The
between 2000 and 2005, was 1616 per year. The numbers have bounced
from year to year, but the overall average number for the periods
before and after
Falun Gong persecution began is the same. Execution of prisoners
sentenced to death
can not explain the increase of organ transplants in China since the
Falun Gong began.
According to public reports, there were approximately 30,000 41
transplants in total
done in China before 1999 and 18,500 42 41 in the six year period 1994
to 1999. Shi
Bingyi, vice-chair of the China Medical Organ Transplant Association,
says there were
38 �China to 'tidy up' trade in executed prisoners' organs,� The Times,
December 03, 2005
39 �Beijing Mulls New Law on Transplants of Deathrow Inmate Organs�,
Caijing Magazine/Issue:147, Nov
40 Index of AI Annual reports:
from here one can select annual
report of each year.
(China Biotech Information Net, 2002-12-02)
(China Pharmacy Net, 2002-12-05)
(People�s Daily, 2004-09-07, from Xinhua
42 �The Number of Renal Transplant (Asia & the Middle and Near
East)1989-2000,� Medical Net (Japan),
about 90,000 43 transplants in total up until 2005, leaving about
60,000 transplants in
the six year period 2000 to 2005 since the persecution of Falun Gong
The other identified sources of organ transplants, willing family
donors and the brain
dead, have always been tiny. In 2005, living-related kidney transplants
0.5% of total transplants 44. The total of brain dead donors for all
years and all of
China is 9 up to March 2006 44 45. There is no indication of a
significant increase in
either of these categories in recent years. Presumably the identified
sources of organ
transplants which produced 18,500 organ transplants in the six year
period 1994 to
1999 produced the same number of organs for transplants in the next six
2000 to 2005. That means that the source of 41,500 transplants for the
period 2000 to 2005 is unexplained.
Where do the organs come from for all the transplants in China? The
organ harvesting from Falun Gong practitioners provides an answer.
Again this sort of gap in the figures does not establish that the
harvesting of organs from Falun Gong practitioners is true. But the
converse, a full
explanation of the source of all organ transplants, would disprove the
the source of all organ transplants could be traced either to willing
donors or executed
prisoners, then the allegation against the Falun Gong would be
disproved. But such
tracing is impossible.
(Health Paper Net 2006-03-02)
44 �CURRENT SITUATION OF ORGAN DONATION IN CHINA FROM STIGMA TO
STIGMATA�, Abstract, The World Transplant Congress, http://www.abstracts2view.com/wtc/
Zhonghua K Chen, Fanjun Zeng, Changsheng Ming, Junjie Ma, Jipin Jiang.
Institute of Organ Transplantation,
Hospital, Tongji Medical College, HUST, Wuhan, China.
Estimates of executions in China of prisoners sentenced to death are
higher than the figures based on publicly available records of
executions. There is no
official Chinese reporting on overall statistics of executions, leaving
totals open to
One technique some of those involved in estimating executions have used
number of transplant operations. Because it is known that at least some
come from executed prisoners and that family donors are few and far
analysts have deduced from the number of transplants that execution of
sentenced to death have increased.
This reasoning is unpersuasive. One cannot estimate execution of
sentenced to death from transplants unless executions of prisoners
death are the only alleged source of transplants. Yet, Falun Gong
another alleged source. It is impossible to conclude that those
practitioners are not a
source of organs for transplants because of the number of executions of
sentenced to death where the number of executions of prisoners
sentenced to death
is deduced from the number of transplants.
Can the increase in transplants be explained by increased efficiency in
prisoners sentenced to death and then executed? The increase in
transplants in China
paralleled both the persecution of the Falun Gong and the development
transplant technology. But the increase in transplants did not parallel
the increase of
all transplant technology. Kidney transplant technology was fully
developed in China
before the persecution of Falun Gong began. Yet kidney transplants shot
more than doubling once the persecution of Falun Gong started. There
were 3,596 37
kidney transplants in 1998 and nearly 10,000 in 2005 43.
A second reason that multiple organ harvesting from executed prisoners
, (Beijing Youth Daily, 2006-03-06)
death does not explain the increase in organ transplants is overall
organ matching in China. There is no national network for the matching
of organs.46 Doctors decry the wastage of organs from donors, bemoaning
that �only kidneys were used from donors, wasting of other organs� 46 .
manages its own organ supply and waiting list. Patients go from one
there are no ready organs for transplants to other hospitals were
takes place at once. 47 Hospitals refer patients from their own
hospital where they say
they have no readily available organs for transplant to another
hospital which they say
does have organs for transplant. 48 This disorganization diminishes the
efficient use of
A third reason that multiple organ harvesting from executed prisoners
death does not explain the increase in organ transplants is the
Nowhere has transplants jumped so significantly with the same number of
simply because of a change in technology. Year by year statistics for
United States and Japan are set out in an appendix.
The increase in organ transplants in China parallels the increase in
persecution of the
Falun Gong. These parallel increases of Falun Gong persecution and
themselves, do not prove the allegation. But they are consistent with
the parallel did not exist, that hypothetical non-existence would
28) Sources of future transplants
Organ transplant surgery in China is a booming business. There were
only 22 liver
transplant centres 49 operating across China before 1999 and 500 in mid
- April, 2006
, China Pharmaceutical Paper, 2004-11-15
47 Please see case #7 in appendix 5.
Please see case#4 in appendix 14.
8 50. The number of kidney transplantation institutions increased from
10651 in 2001 to
36852 in 2005.
The money to be made has led to the creation of dedicated facilities,
organ transplants. There is the Peking University Third Hospital Liver
Centre 53 founded in October 2002, the Beijing Organ Transplantation
established in November 2002, the Organ Transplant Centre of the
Army Number 309 Hospital 55 established in April 2002, the People's
Organ Transplant Research Institute 56 (Organ Transplant Centre of the
Changzheng Hospital) established in May 2004 and the Shanghai Clinical
Centre57 for Organ Transplants established in 2001. The Oriental Organ
Centre 58 in Tianjin began construction in 2002. It is fourteen floors
above ground and
two floors underground with 300 beds. It is a public facility, built by
Tianjin City. It is
the largest transplant centre in Asia.
The establishment of these facilities is both an indicator of the
volume of organ
and a commitment to their continuation. The creation of whole facilities
dedicated to organ transplants bespeaks long term planning.
(People�s Daily Net and Union News Net, 2000-10-17). Archived
50 According to Deputy Minister of Health, Mr. Huang Jiefu, http://www.transplantation.org.cn/html/200604/467.html
(Lifeweekly, 2006-04-07). Archived at:
(Life Weekly, 2004
News Agency, Chongqing branch, 2004-04-04)
Located in Beijing
Yet, the organ source for virtually all Chinese transplants is
prisoners. There is a
debate which this report addresses whether these prisoners have all
sentenced to death or whether some of them are detained Falun Gong
who have been sentenced to jail terms only or not sentenced at all. But
there is no
debate over whether the sources of organs are prisoners; that much is
The establishment of dedicated organ transplant facilities in China is
assertion of the intent to continue organ harvesting from prisoners.
Yet, the Government of China has, both in law and through official
that it would cease organ harvesting from prisoners sentenced to death
who do not
consent to organ harvesting. And, as set out elsewhere in this report,
there is no
such thing as meaningful consent to organ harvesting from a prisoner
The creation of these dedicated facilities raises the question not only
what has been
the source for so many organs transplanted in the past, but, as well,
what will be the
source for so many organs which China intends to transplant in the
whom will these organs come? The source of prisoners sentenced to death
presumably disappear or diminish substantially if China is genuine in
applying to this
its law and stated policy about requiring consent of donors.
The Chinese authorities, to build these dedicated organ transplant
have the confidence that there exists now and into the foreseeable
future a ready
source of organs from people who are alive now and will be dead
tomorrow. Who are
these people? A large prison population of Falun Gong practitioners
29) Corpses with missing organs
A number of family members of Falun Gong practitioners who died in
reported seeing the corpses of their loved ones with surgical incisions
and body parts
missing. The authorities gave no coherent explanation for these
Again the evidence about these mutilated corpses is attached as an
appendix to this
We have only a few instances of such mutilated corpses. We have no
explanation why they were mutilated. Their mutilation is consistent
In the first version of our report, appendix twelve had a photo of a
stitches after his body was cut open to remove organs. One comment we
back is that the stitches the photos show are consistent with an
We observe that organs may indeed be removed for autopsies in order to
the cause of death. A corpse which has been autopsied may well have
to those shown in the photo. Outside of China, except for organ donors,
that is likely
the reason why organs would be removed from a corpse. Similarly,
outside of China,
when people are blood tested, typically, the test is done for their own
However, the suggestion that Falun Gong practitioners who are tortured
to the point
of death are blood tested for their health or that practitioners who
are tortured to
death are autopsied to determine the cause of death belies the torture
corpse whose photo we reproduced was that of Wang Bin. Beatings caused
artery in Mr. Wang's neck and major blood vessels to break. As a
result, his tonsils
were injured, his lymph nodes were crushed, and several bones were
had cigarette burns on the backs of his hands and inside his nostrils.
bruises all over his body. Even though he was already close to death,
he was tortured
again at night. He finally lost consciousness. On the night of October
4, 2000, Mr.
Wang died from his injuries.
The purpose of an autopsy report is to determine the cause of death
when the cause
is otherwise unknown. But in the case of Wang Bin, the cause of death
before his organs were removed. The suggestion that Wang bin would be
determine the cause of death after he was tortured to death is not
was no indication that the family of Wang Bin was asked for consent
organs of the victim were removed nor provided an autopsy report
suggestion of an autopsy is not a tenable explanation for the stitches
on Wang Bin's
Mandarin speaking investigators called in to a number of hospitals and
doctors to ask about transplants. The callers presented themselves as
recipients or relatives of potential recipients. Phone numbers were
obtained from the
internet. These calls resulted in a number of admissions that Falun
are the sources of organ transplants. Since our last report, there are
further calls with
admissions set out in an appendix.
If the phone numbers was a general number of a hospital, the callers
with asking to be connected to the transplant department of the
hospital and they first
spoke with whoever picked up the phone for some general information of
operations. Usually the person would help to locate a doctor or the
transplant department to speak to the caller. If the doctor was not
caller would then call back to look for this specific doctor or
chief-physician next time
she called and speak to the doctor, or chief physician.
Usually hospital staff talked to people (or family members) wanting
and actively located relevant doctors for them.
Although callers always began by speaking to a hospital or a doctor,
were referred to prisons or courts, because these were the distribution
harvested organs. It may seem strange to call a court about organ
systematic organ harvesting in China began with executed prisoners
death even if it did not end there. It seems that the distribution
point for organs from
people in the prison system remained the same after China moved on from
organs from prisoners sentenced to death to other prisoners.
One of the callers, "Ms. M", told one of us that in early March, 2006
she managed to
get through to the Public Security Bureau in Shanxi. The respondent
there told her
that healthy and young prisoners are selected from the prison
population to be organ
donors. If the candidates could not be tricked into providing the blood
necessary for successful transplants, the official went on with
employees of the office take the samples by force.
On March 18 or 19, 2006 M spoke to a representative of the Eye
Department at the
People's Liberation Army hospital in Shenyang in north-eastern China,
was not able to make a full recorded transcript. Her notes indicate
that the person
identifying himself as the hospital director said the facility did
operations", adding that "we also have fresh corneas." Asked what that
director replied "...just taken from bodies".
At Army Hospital 301 in Beijing in April, 2006, a surgeon told M that
she did liver
transplants herself. The surgeon added that the source of the organs
was a "state
secret" and that anyone revealing the source "could be disqualified
from doing such
In early June, 2006, an official at the Mishan city detention centre
told a telephone
caller that the centre then had at least five or six male Falun Gong
prisoners under 40
years of age available as organ suppliers. A doctor at Shanghai's
in mid March of 2006 said that all of his organs come from Falun Gong
doctor at Qianfoshan hospital in Shandong in March implied that he then
from Falun Gong persons and added that in April there would be "more of
of bodies..." In May, Dr. Lu of the Minzu hospital in Nanning city said
Falun Gong practitioners were not available at his institution and
suggested the caller
call Guangzhou to get them. He also admitted that he earlier went to
prisons to select
healthy Falun Gong persons in their 30s to provide their organs.
In mid - March of 2006, Dr Wang of Zhengzhou Medical University in
agreed that "we pick all the young and healthy kidneys..." Dr Zhu of
Military region hospital in April of 2006 said he then had some type B
Falun Gong, but would have "several batches" before May 1 and perhaps
until May 20 or later. An official at the first detention centre in
Qinhuangdao city in
Liaoling province told a caller in mid May 2006 that she should call
People's court to obtain Falun Gong kidneys. The same day, an official
at that court
said they had no Falun Gong live kidneys, but had had them in the past,
2001. Finally, the First Criminal Bureau of the Jinzhou people's court
in May of 2006
the caller that access to Falun Gong kidneys currently depended on
Director Song at the Tianjin city central hospital in mid March 2006
his hospital had more than ten beating hearts. The caller asked if that
bodies" and Song replied, "Yes it is so." An official at the Wuhan city
two weeks later tells the caller that "(i)t's not a problem� for his
institution when the
caller says, "...we hope the kidney suppliers are alive. (We're)
looking for live organ
transplants from prisoners, for example, using living bodies from
practise Falun Gong, Is it possible?"
The map of China which follows indicates the regions where detention or
personnel have made admissions to telephone investigators:
Most of the excerpted phone call texts are in an appendix. For
excerpts of three conversations follow:
(1) Mishan City Detention Centre, Heilongjiang province (8 June 2006):
M: "Do you have Falun Gong [organ] suppliers? ..."
Li: "We used to have, yes."
M: "... what about now?"
Li: "... Yes."
M: "Can we come to select, or you provide directly to us?"
Li: "We provide them to you."
M: "What about the price?"
Li: "We discuss after you come."
M: "... How many [Falun Gong suppliers] under age 40 do you have?"
Li: "Quite a few."
M: "Are they male or female?"
M: "Now, for ... the male Falun Gong [prisoners], How many of them do
Li: "Seven, eight, we have [at least] five, six now."
M: "Are they from countryside or from the city?"
Nanning City Minzu Hospital in Guangxi Autonomous Region
(22 May 2006):
M: "...Could you find organs from Falun Gong practitioners?"
Dr. Lu: "Let me tell you, we have no way to get (them). It's rather
get it now in Guangxi. If you cannot wait, I suggest you go to
Guangzhou because it's
very easy for them to get the organs. They are able to look for (them)
nation wide. As
they are performing the liver transplant, they can get the kidney for
you at the same
time, so it's very easy for them to do. Many places where supplies are
short go to
them for help..."
M: "Why is it easy for them to get?"
Lu: "Because they are an important institution. They contact the
system in the name of the whole university."
M: "Then they use organs from Falun Gong practitioners?"
M: "...what you used before (organs from Falun Gong practitioners), was
from detention centre(s) or prison(s)?"
Lu: "From prisons."
M: "...and it was from healthy Falun Gong practitioners...?"
Lu: "Correct. We would choose the good ones because we assure the
in our operation."
M: "That means you choose the organs yourself."
M: "Usually, how old is the organ supplier?"
Lu: "Usually in their thirties."
M: "... Then you will go to the prison to select yourself?"
Lu: "Correct. We must select it."
M: "What if the chosen one doesn't want to have blood drawn?"
Lu: "He will for sure let us do it."
Lu: "They will for sure find a way. What do you worry about? These
things should not be of any concern to you. They have their procedures."
M: "Does the person know that his organ will be removed?"
"No, he doesn't."
(3) Oriental Organ Transplant Centre (also called Tianjin City No 1
Tianjin City, (15 March 2006):
N: Is this Director Song?"
Song: Yes, please speak."
N: Her doctor told her that the kidney is quite good because he
[the supplier,] practises ...Falun Gong."
Song: "Of course. We have all those who breathe and with heart
now, for this year, we have more than ten kidneys, more than ten such
N: "More than ten of this kind of kidneys? You mean live bodies?"
Song: "Yes it is so."
Caller M called about 80 some hospitals. When calling hospitals in some
cases M asked
for specific doctors in the called hospitals, and was able to speak to
doctors. 10 hospitals admitted they use Falun Gong practitioners as
M also called back to talk to the doctors. 5 hospitals said they can
obtain Falun Gong
practitioners as organ suppliers. 14 hospitals admitted they use live
prisoners. 10 hospitals said the source of organs is a secret and they
could not reveal
it over the phone.
Caller N made calls to close to 40 hospitals in China, out of which 5
admitted to using
Falun Gong practitioner organs. N also called back to talk to the
doctors who made
these admissions. They were still reachable at the hospitals. N also
made calls to 36
various detention centres and the Courts in China, out of which 4
admitted to using
Falun Gong practitioner organs.
When calling hospitals, in some cases N would ask for specific doctors
in the hospitals
called and was able to speak to transplant doctors. N's style was to
ask directly the
called party, the doctors in the hospitals etc, if they use Falun Gong
The typical response she got was that the caller did not expect this
question at all,
would pause for a while to think how to respond. After the pause, about
not admit that they used Falun Gong practitioners' organs. About 80% of
did not admit to using Falun Gong practitioners' organs did admit that
they use live
bodies who are prisoners. Less than 10 people simply hung up the phone
heard the question about Falun Gong practitioners.
One of us has listened with a certified Mandarin-English interpreter to
recorded telephone conversations between officials and callers on
behalf of the Falun
Gong communities in Canada and the United States. Certified copies of
transcripts in Mandarin and English were provided to us.
The accuracy of the translations of the portions of them used in this
report is attested
to by the certified translator, Mr. C. Y., a certified interpreter with
the Government of
Ontario. He certified that he had listened to the recording of the
referred to in this report and has read the transcripts in Chinese and
English version of the conversations, and verifies that the transcripts
are correct and
translations accurate. The original recordings of the calls remain
available as well.
One of us met with two of the callers in Toronto on May 27th to discuss
timing, recording, accuracy of the translations from Mandarin to
English and other
features of the calls.
We conclude that the verbal admissions in the transcripts of interviews
can be trusted. There is no doubt in our minds that these interviews
did take place
with the persons claimed to be interviewed at the time and place
indicated and that
the transcripts accurately reflect what was said.
Moreover, the content of what was said can itself be believed. For one,
against the recent international uproar about alleged organ seizures as
Beijing Olympics approach, the admissions made at the various
to the reputational interests of the government of China in attempting
convince the international community that the widespread killing of
prisoners for their vital organs has not occurred.
31) A confession
A woman using the pseudonym Annie told us that her surgeon husband told
he personally removed the corneas from approximately 2,000
Gong prisoners Sujiatun hospital in Shenyang City in northeast China
during the two
year period before October, 2003, at which time he refused to continue.
made it clear to his wife that none of the cornea "donors" survived the
because other surgeons removed other vital organs and all of their
bodies were then
burned. Annie is not a Falun Gong practitioner.
Annie had earlier told the Epoch Times in a story published in its
March 17 issue:
"One of my family members was involved in the operation to harvest Falun
Gong practitioners' organs. This brought great pain to our family."
Her interview led to a controversy about whether or not she was telling
the truth. For
the first version of our report, released on July 7, 2006, we
controversy that had arisen about the credibility of her testimony. We
Annie even for our first report. However, the detail she provided posed
a problem for
us because it provided a good deal of information which it was
corroborate independently. We were reluctant to base our findings on
information. So, in the end, we relied on what Annie told us only where
corroborative and consistent with other evidence, rather than as sole
For this version of our report, we engage the controversy directly. We
what Annie says her husband told her was not only told to her but also
Annie's testimony goes a long way to establish, all on its own, the
allegation. In an
about Sujiatun, we go in detail through the various points in dispute
generated by her March 17 interview with the Epoch Times.
32) Corroborating studies
There have been two investigations independent from our own which have
the same question we have addressed, whether there is organ harvesting
Gong practitioners in China. Both have come to the same conclusion we
independent investigations corr